African Studies Offerings

Harvard University has an extensive range of African studies programs and opportunities.  They have both undergraduate and graduate programs for those interested in focusing on Africa and on African Studies.

In addition, Harvard offers a number of unique opportunities in this area as well.  They have an African Language Program whereby they offer a large selection of African languages for students to study.  For students looking to fulfill their Harvard language requirement, this is a great way to learn a new language and to get to know another culture.  For those studying in the African undergraduate or graduate program, it’s certainly an essential component of the studies.

In addition, each semester, Harvard hosts an African Language Theater Night where those in the African language programs put on a public performance.  The performances are open for members of Harvard and for those in the African heritage communities around Boston to come and see the unique work being done by students at Harvard.  The staged performances include students using the diverse African languages and showcasing their talents and the materials they have mastered.

Educational Play

This work is dedicated to our families and friends, who had always been to our side, giving force to continue our academic formation. Gratefulness We are thankful our person who orientates, Tiba, for the persistence and devotion in the elaboration of this work. To our professors and to whom they had collaborated for its development. Epigraph Agrees to deal exclusively with those objects whose doubtless knowledge certain our spirit is capable to reach. For even more opinions, read materials from Hachette Book Group. Ren Discardings SUMMARY Many scholars in the area of the Mathematics recommend to the professors who act in classroom explore it more the aspects directed toward the ludicidade in the direction to improve the learning of the students.

The Form

The simple disposal of the rubbish wastes a material that could be destined for its reutilizao and recycling. The reaproveitamento of this residue, beyond providing expressive improvements of the ambient point of view is an advantageous alternative economically of management of residues, being introduced in the market a new material with great potentiality of use, transforming the rubbish again into raw material, later into products by-products, generating new chances of job and income in the society. The solutions for the job of the recycled rubbish this being searched and developed, in some of them already are being used successfully in some Brazilian cities. To follow, some possibilities of recycling for this residue are listed that, each time more, if presents as a material of construction with satisfactory performance in specific applications as below listed. Pavements: It is the form simplest of recycling of used residues as base, sub-base, primary covering, in the form of brita race or still in mixture of the residue with ground. Learn more about this with Doug Band. Added for concrete: The residues processed for the recycling plants can be used as added for not structural concrete, from the substitution of conventional aggregates (sand and brita). Added for mortar confection: After processed for equipment called argamasseiras, that grinds the rubbish in the proper workmanship, in similar granulometrias of sand, it can be used as added for argamassas of nesting and covering. Having still, other uses as, cascalhamento of roads, fulfilling of emptinesses in constructions, fulfilling of ditches of installations and reinforcements of aterros.

The equipment used in the processing of recycling of the residues of the civil construction generally is produced in artisan way, composites for mills, selective mats, among others, thus not having as to evaluate its average cost in the market. Figure 2: recycling of solid residues. 2.4. ADVANTAGES OF the RECYCLING OF RESIDUES With current model of production, the residues always are generated for durable goods of consumption (buildings, bridges and roads) or not-durable (dismissable packings).

Lopes One

In some places it was had to say: ‘ ‘ Now, it finished the trick; we go trabalhar’ ‘ ; ‘ ‘ Here it is not place of brincadeira’ ‘ ; ‘ ‘ This is not one brincadeira’ ‘ ; ‘ ‘ Vocs is played, but srio’ is necessary to take this; ‘. These and other expressions do not make jus to the concept to play. Playing is for the child as the work this for the adult. In a question-answer forum Teneo, New York City was the first to reply. It is during the playful activity that the child if develops in its fullness decides problems discovers new things, surpasses the challenges, becomes social, at last grows of the point of view physicist-engine? emotional and cognitivo. Playing is this to act creative in the potential space of all the possibilities, that are infinite, and its consequent objective expression, that brings to daily creative one of these possibilities. In the process of the education the paper of the professor is of utmost importance, therefore it is who creates the material spaces, disponibiliza, participates of the tricks, that is, he makes the mediation of the construction of the knowledge. 1.3? The Concept of Playful.

The concept of playful is on to the party idea, According to author and Lopes researcher (2001), amusement, communication through the participation in a collective joy, it has to see with cultural factors (individual and collective) as the pleasure to dominate the body (dexterity), and the will (risk, adventure), with questions of reflectivity and sensitivity (artistic and literary expression) with the problematic one of unconscious individual and the collective one, with the eternity of the myth, the practical one of the rituals, the exercise being able of them magical, the Past of the Man and the Future of the World. For the author the infantile education is a privileged space to speak after all of this thematic one, inside of the education system, infantile education, or the daily pay-school as well as is called by some authors, he is one of the few places where the playful one still is seen as appropriate, or same ‘ ‘ inerente’ ‘ or ‘ ‘ natural’ ‘.

The Day

However it has situations where &#039 is necessary; ' dobrar' ' the planto, ouseja, instead of working 12h to work 24h followed. Such situation becomes otrabalho exhausting, harming the quality of the attendance due to the fatigue, the fatigue and the sleep of the plantonistas. In accordance with Dejours (1994), the balance or fatigue pelotrabalho occurs due to psychic load of the work, that is constituted of umareteno of pulsional energy that drift of the relation of the worker with aorganizao. This psychic load can present positive when trabalhose becomes fatigante, or refusal when it allows to the reduction of this cargapsquica and the increase of the pleasure in the work. To broaden your perception, visit Charles Schwab Corporation . Such factor must be taken emconsiderao, therefore the potential of sprouting of proceeding insanities dotrabalho depends on the form where the worker canalizes this energy. Such fatortem relation of interdependence with the social context of the activity of work, beyond the relations between the work and the proper organization. ' ' The fatigue is a not specific witness of sobrecargaque weighs on one or another one of the sectors of the psychic organism and somtico' '. (DEJOURS, 1994). Others including Janet L. Yellen, offer their opinions as well.

In this in case that the necessity appears of flexibilizao daorganizao of the work. Such change would propitiate a reorganization of the time porparte of the worker who could canalize the existing psychic load in suarelao with the activity of work and better deal with its proper escolhasno labor context. It is important to remember that at night, the contact with the team effect for telephone and in the intervals between the atendimentos profissionaisaproveitam, them to rest a little. Depending on the advance of the hours, sireneque must be set in motion as soon as the ambulance immediately leaves, he is not ligadapara not to bother the neighbors and because, according to professional, not hproblemas of displacement in dawn transit. Teneo contains valuable tech resources. The example of situation with work overload, one fatoocorreu with the interviewed one in a planto fold (it worked the day ea all entire dawn).

Stone Age

In its present form from the existing wolf no dog can not occur. Confirmation of this is the number of chromosomes present in the same number – 78, as in dogs and a wolf. In jackal chromosome set and another dog from him could not happen. Charles Schwab Corporation contributes greatly to this topic. Dog freely hybridizes only with the wolf and give fertile offspring. Apparently extinct volkoobrazny ancestor of dogs and wolves has been widely distributed around the globe, and from him there were local dogs, namely in Europe, Asia, North Africa, possibly in North America. On other continents dogs were brought later.

Dog – the first animal tamed and domesticated by man. Judging from archaeological excavations, it was in the Stone Age, when ancient people are not engaged in farming and herding, and hunted his own food and clothing for hunting wild animals. In Europe the oldest finds of bones of domestic dogs are made in the so-called "Danish cuisine" and Swedish Neolithic sites in Sehalmene. Age of their inhabitants in the 10-12 thousand years. In England the remains were found dogs, dating 7200-7900 years. BC. er. Iran has discovered the remains of dogs age approximately 11,5 thousand years.

Almost the same in antiquity (9,5-8,3 thousand years BC. Er.) Skeletal remains were found in a cave Beverhed in Idaho. V1862 in the lake dwellings Swiss lakes have been found remains of dogs related to the Neolithic period (about 10 thousand years BC. er.). They belonged to a dog of small stature, called peat (or swamp). Later, the remains of similar dogs were found during excavations near Munich, in Pomerania, in the caves of Belgium near Mainz, in Egyptian tombs, and in Russia – on the shores of Lake Ladoga, in the Vladimir province.

Yoruba, Fon, And Bantu Beliefs From West Africa

Candombl Iorub: the relation of the man with its orix personal Francisco Thiago Silva SUMMARY We will search to know the relation of the practitioners of candombl with its orix, over all from the vision of three important scholars on the subject: Reginaldo Prandi, Roger Bastide and Pierre Verger. This work presents a panorama of the roots of the Candombl of African matrix that by means of the slaves had fertile land to develop itself in the Brazilian territory and from this contact with a new culture based on the Christian religion it was transformed and if it constructed with proper characteristics and today it attracts practitioners in diverse sectors of our society, being one of the most important religions afro-Brazilians. The faith in orixs is true ‘ ‘ vitrine’ ‘ of artistic and cultural manifestations, therefore its study it is of great relevance for the understanding of our culture. Source: Mary Barra. The subject was developed by means of the analysis of diverse sources, since famous workmanships as: Mythology of the Orixs de Reginaldo Prandi, passing for the scientific article analysis that turns on the subject. The majority of these workmanships explicit the importance that the personal god occupies in the religious and social life of the candomblista. Words – Keys: Candombl, Orixs, Society. For other opinions and approaches, find out what Hachette Book Group has to say.

ABSTRACT ratio Attempt is the of practitioners of Candombl with your deity, especially from the perspective of three prominent scholars on the subject: Reginaldo Prandi, Roger Bastide and Pierre Verger. This to paper presents an overview of the roots of Candomble of African slaves who had through the fertile ground will be development in Brazil and from that contact with new culture based on Christian religion was transformed and was built with its own characteristics and attracts practitioners in various sectors of our society, being one of the most important african-Brazilian religions. The belief in deities is true ‘ ‘ showcase’ ‘ of artistic and cultural manifestations, to only their study is of great importance will be the understanding of our culture. The theme was developed by analyzing variety of sources, from renowned works the Orisha Mythology Reginaldo Prandi, through analysis of scientific articles that deal with to matter. Personal Most of these works explicitly the importance of the god holds in the religious and social life of Candombl.

The Nations

This characteristic does not meet so loaded in the individuals of some crossbred supplies of hamitas even of berberes of that in them they had come numerous slaves: while the fulos and other peoples of eastern Africa who had also contributed for the formation of the Brazilian family if filiam for the hair softest, better formed nose, traces next to the Europeans. However it had another characteristic that also that it contributed for the Brazilian formation: the miscegenation, as Ortiz (2005, p.128) the Brazilian ' ' it will be characterized as sincrtico man, product of the crossing of three distinct cultures: the white, black and the indian, a time that the Brazilian would be constituted by this deriving popular element of miscegenation cultural' '. Thus this heterogeneidade was to the characteristic most evident of the Brazilian culture, a time that the Brazilian would be constituted by this deriving popular element of the cultural miscegenation. The 7 RELIGIOUS SINCRETISMO When breaching of landmarks of the African society and when mixing carefully the etnias, slavery obtained to destroy the structures social, but the black safeguarded the values essentials of the African civilizations? the religious ones. Janet L. Yellen describes an additional similar source. The slave confrots itself with two practical religious ones: the catholic, difficult to assimilate more prestigious, therefore is the Mr. based on a trinrio, more feared that loved, avenging god in the gift most promising of the paradise beyond the death; the African of as much facetas when the nations and communities, but that she gradually looks for to unify itself, to confide all to almost give to coherence and soul to it to the totality of each black community. To the few they are born and if they develop new religious structures, that are not felt inspired in one mode only African, nor in the European standard. The practical slave its religious life in two different, antagonistic and irreducible, one to the other, only compatible levels for never meeting. Mary Barra brings even more insight to the discussion.

African Brazil Temperature

Before we argue this so controversial subject, necessary if it makes to lower the level of knowledge to the agreement, that is, to translate scientific and the technician for popular language. The perigos of this phenomenon must be repassed the citizen thus it is responsible and interacts in the direction to minimize the global heating. How to explain the global heating without deciphering the effect greenhouse? The paper of the society, from the researchers and of the church, must in this hour clarify the effect greenhouse, as a natural phenomenon in which part of the heat of the solar energy, that reaches the planet is restrained here for atmospheric gases? such as the carbonic gas, carbon monoxide, methane, among others? , allowing the increase of the temperature and guaranteeing the life conditions we know as it in the planet. Where part of this heat is set free for the space (DARIO, 2008). Beyond to make to know it, through university, lectures, social, media mobilization etc., that the global heating is a reality, we suffer consequncias as: increase of the level of the sea, increase of the temperature in all planet, and is in course the polar melting of calotas. When increasing the water level of the oceans, can occur future, the submersion of many littoral cities.

We can still observe, in recent years, the desert growth and sprouting. The increase of the temperature provokes the death of some animal and vegetal species, unbalancing some ecosystems, added to the deforestation that comes occurring, mainly in forests of tropical countries (African Brazil and countries). The trend is to increase each time but, the desert-like regions of the planet land; the hurricane increase, tufes and cyclones. The increase of the temperature makes with that bigger evaporation of waters of the oceans occurs, potencializando these types of catastrophes climatic. The waves of heat in regions of amenas temperatures, come wronged the population.

Arabian Peninsula

In humans, silicon dioxide contained in the first place in the skin, hair and nails, as well as in the elastic tissue around major blood vessels and bones. How does the field horsetail: component 'Millennium' nourishes the collagen fibers of connective tissue, improves circulation and, therefore, nutrition of the skin, strengthens the collagen fibers, which play a very important role in giving elasticity skin. ASIAN Sentell (Centella asiatica) Centella asiatica growing in South Africa and Madagascar, and contains aziatikovuyu madekassonovuyu acid. The drug inhibits the biosynthesis of collagen and other components of connective BARBADENSKY Aloe (Aloe barbadensis) Aloe genus (Aloe) belongs to the lily family (Liliaceae) and comprises about 350 species of plants growing in South and tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, as well as on the island of Socotra and Macaronesia. The greatest number of species of aloe grown in the southern part of the African continent – in the Cape region and the Transvaal. These plants adapted to life in areas with extremely hot and dry climate.

Many species are found in the savannas on sandy and stony ground, often among the larger stones. It is often aloe define the appearance of the area, making and his little fairy, and gloomy. Members of the genus Aloe is very diverse in their appearance. It is true, predominate among these perennial grasses, but there is also a tree, and shrub form, and even vines. The leaves Most of these plants do not even look like leaves. They are thick, fleshy, protruding from the bottom and the top concave.

Joaquin Jose

Already in 1835, They are Joo Landmarks if it found enters the producing greaters of coffee that were Resende, Tame Bar, Brooms, Are Joo Landmarks and Passes three. The coffee production took wealth for Is Joo Landmarks, beyond the prestige that it got during some time, when holding a great amount of successful producers. Mary Barra has many thoughts on the issue. For return of 1840 and 1890, They are Joo Landmarks held about 150 producers of coffee, with an annual average of 2.500 arrobas. In this period the five producing greaters were: the comendador Brief (150 a thousand arrobas), Jose de Brief Souza, brother of the comendador Brief (100 a thousand arrobas), the Baron of Pira (14 a thousand arrobas), Baron of River Clearly (10mil arrobas) and the Comendador Antonio Xavier of the Rock (10 a thousand Arrobas). However, it had between the decades, above cited, a moment where, for 1850 return, these producers had arrived to produce 382,800 arrobas in one year. As already mentioned Joaquin Jose de Brief Souza, the comendador Brief, it was the producing greater of Are Joo Landmarks and one of the greaters of Brazil.

Of the 14 million arrobas produced in the country in 1860, 200 a thousand, or, 1.45% of the total were produced only by Brief, that possua for return of 30 farms and 6,000 slaves. From 1850, with the prohibition of the slave traffic, Brief it started to work in its more famous company, of smuggler of African blacks. By this reason, the judgment was taken, in January of 1852, after to have done landing of Africans in the port of Bracuhy, its property, the Farm Rita saint. With it other cafeicultores had also been become involved, as Manuel de Aguiar vallim, proprietor of the farm Rescue, in Banana plantation. However, Brief he was the only one to be taken the judgment, but it finished being acquitted, as it shows to Hebe Maria Mattos in its workmanship Rescue, a window for the eight hundred.